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Any News Paper will have a editing section with it, which will perform the operation of  editing the Newspaper. The editing section may contain any number of sub editors to edit the paper, the number depends on the size of the paper.

If you want to know the qualities of a good sub editor please Click Here


            A Lead is the starting line of first paragraph of a  story. It should not be more than 35 words. In a soft story the lead can be anywhere in the story, but in a hard story the lead should be at first paragraph of a story

    There are various types of Leads, some of them are as follows

        1. Narrative

        2. Contrast

        3. Staccato

        4. Direct Address 

        5. Question

 Narrative Leads

                    A Narrative lead also called as anecdotal Lead is the most popular lead on features & non breaking news stories. The Narrative Lead uses an anecdote or colorful scene to draw people into the story by putting them in the middle of the action. Although a Narrative Lead can be written as a single paragraph, it is usually written as a Lead Block ; 2 or more paragraphs building to a paragraph that tells readers the major point of the story. Narrative Lead often involves 2 Persons, it is acceptable to use that people's name in the opening paragraph. This is usually not done in Summary Lead unless the person is well-known, but using a name right away  in a narrative allows an audience to identify more quickly with the major player in the story.

Contrast Leads

               A Contrast Lead compares or contrasts 1 person or thing with another  , or several people or things with each other. Most contrast Leads are written in 2 or 3 paragraphs blocks. The first sentence set the stage explaining a past event or perception. The readers are quickly brought up to date.

Staccato Leads

                A Staccato Lead is made up of phrases that carry an audience into a news or feature story by dangling some of its key elements in front of them. After the short phrase , a nut graph must tell the audience the news peg of the story. Readers  or viewers should not have to wait to find out what the story is all about.  


              In a direct-Address Lead, a news or feature writer communicates directly with the audience by using the word 'YOU'. This kind of lead gives writers an opportunity to reach out to their audience, to include them as individuals in a story. 


            A Quote lead allows a central character to begin a news or feature story by talking directly to the audience. The Quotation may be the most powerful one in the story, or it may set the tone for what is to follow. Before using a quotation, screen it carefully  for libel. The fact that someone said something does not allow a writer to use it worry-free.      



        After the lead- that is from the 2nd paragraph to the final paragraph- an inverted pyramid story is structured to present the news in order of descending importance. It is usually not built chronologically, nor does it with an surprise. The most important of the 5 w`s and 1 H are put into the lead. Each paragraph further explains or complements the paragraphs before it.

        Writers do not conclude news stories by saying "The End". They often conclude a story with a direct quotation . The final paragraph can also report additional facts. The facts are important to the story, but they are not as important as the rest of the information provided.

Guidelines to followed when using Inverted Pyramid Style

        1.Write a Terse Lead : write a brief lead paragraph of no more than 35 words that gives major news of the story. Write a second paragraph providing major points of the news event that would not fit into the opening paragraph.

        2. Provide background : Use the 3rd or another early paragraph, and more paragraphs if necessary, to provide background, which explains things for readers. Background can come from any source.

        3. Present news in order of descending importance : continue reporting news of the story using paragraphs in order of descending importance. Inverted Pyramids are seldom constructed chronologically. 

        4. Use quotations early and throughout : A good time to introduce direct quotations is after the audience has been given the major news and background information. Separate direct quotations by using supplementary news and paraphrases. Sprinkle quotations throughout the story rather than string them together. remember, quotations are useful because they let people in the news communicate directly to an audience.

     5. Use Transitions : A Paraphrase, a background paragraph, a paragraph with additional news can be used as transition to move readers smoothly from one paragraph to another.

      6. Do not Editorialize : Reporters   are eyewitness to news. Their job is to tell an audience what they saw, what happened. They should not include their personal opinions.

     7. Avoid 'The End' : Continue reporting news until the end This helps  readers know that even though the writing has stopped, the story  has not. An effective way to end the story is with a direct quotation.